Geographic Information System for Disaster Evacuation and Rescue
In recent years, climate change has increased the frequency and range of mass disasters all around the world. According to the related research, disaster prevention and management is very important in reducing diverse natural disasters. Typhoons and rainstorms occur often and cause disasters a lot in Taiwan, which is situated in Circum-Pacific seismic zone. It can be seen that disaster prevention and management is more critical for people and government in Taiwan.
Thus, Department of Geomatics of National Cheng Kung University planned to develop and provide related departments with a disaster evacuation application as references and planning usage, and aimed to reduce disastrous damage of people’s property and lives.
This plan focuses on integrating functions of GPS and GIS on application of smart phones that can be used in evacuating and rescuing, and also aims to decrease disastrous damage and casualties. A smart phone (Android platform) is used as the platform of Geographic Information System for Disaster Evacuation and Rescue applying. Besides, disaster evacuation and rescue spatial information system contains function of instant GPS coordinate positioning on local machine and function of connecting to Web GIS Network Server on Cloud. Additionally, working with GIS Network Server, this application provides users with disastrous situation and instant network analysis for taking real-time traffic information such as road and bridge damage or prevention and rescue information from related sections into consideration. Therefore, the result of network analysis can be published in form of layers on map service on mobile application for people to utilize.
Features of “Geographic Information System for Disaster Evacuation and Rescue”:
1. Smart Phone (Android system) is adopted as the mobile platform. Users are allowed to install the system in mobile devices or smart phones working in Android environment.
2. Instant network analysis is provided, including GPS coordinate positioning on local machine and network function connecting to SuperGIS Network Server on Cloud to analyze the specified extent instantly.
3. Over the Internet, the results of network analysis can be published in form of layers on map service on mobile application.
4. “Point Barrier” and “Polygon Barrier” functions of network analysis are provided to give users flexible network planning function to fit users’ requirements.
5. To offer comprehensive application that can be operated easily, the system provides intuitive and humanized workflow and interface.
SuperGIS Network Server is adopted as network analysis server. It provides diverse network analysis methods which contain “Short Path”, “Superior Route Planning”, “Closest Facilities”, “Service Area”, “Minimum Spanning Tree”, “Center Problem”, “Median Problem” and “Vehicle Routing Problem”(VRP).
The system is developed as an application (APP) for users to apply and manipulate in Android environment. Users who are evacuees or disaster relief personnel can download this APP and install it on Android mobile devices.
I For evacuees:
Evacuees can start APP and login the server to plan evacuation route and report evacuees’ situation to server.
1. Evacuation Network Planning:
After applying APP, users can confirm their location through GPS and see shelter icons (the red triangles) on map afterward. By long pressing on any shelter icon or point on the map, users are able to utilize network planning function of server to conduct “Evacuation Network Planning.” Please see the blue line in picture 3.
2. Evacuees’ Situation Reporting:
By applying APP, evacuees are able to upload location and information about the evacuees to server. Thus, disaster relief personnel can receive evacuees’ information and conduct rescuing.
II.For Disaster Relief Personnel:
After applying APP and logging in server, users can plan rescue network according to the information revealing evacuees’ location and situation.
1. Rescue Route Planning:
After logging in APP and receiving evacuees’ information from server, users can see the green square icons representing shelters where evacuees stay on map according to evacuees’ situation reporting. And by long pressing on any green square icon or point on the map, users are able to utilize network planning function of server to conduct “Rescue Network Planning.”
Not only does Geographic Information System for Disaster Evacuation and Rescue adopt the methods such as GIS, GPS, Network Transport and etc., the system also organizes related information, like disastrous situation, provided by public sector and users’ location and real-time disastrous situation, and then integrates them into practical application to operate on mobile devices. The development of system, consisting of technologies like GPS, PDA and mobile GIS, enables users to transmit the information of disaster prevention, rescue and evacuation instantly and helps people to protect their lives and properties.